All over the world, people are agog for the affliction of deadly diseases such as cancer, diabetes, heart attacks, etc. No doubt these are life killers; but this article clearly demonstrates the veracity of the devastating mosquito-borne disease, namely Malaria. Everyone in the world starting from eminent doctors to charitable organizations tried their level best to eradicate this disease, but no one so far has succeeded to uproot the disease, and millions of people yet die of Malaria. Sometimes, they cannot resist the brunt of this disease and ultimately succumb to death. A proverb says, “There are thousand ways to skin a cat.” In similar way, researches rephrase this for mosquitoes.
Malaria is a major public health problem in more than 90 countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. It has been a scourge for humankind for thousands of years and it remains one today. However, the real causes of malaria became known to the world only in the 19th century when Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran discovered malaria parasites while examining blood from soldiers. He found crescent-shaped bodies in almost the majority of soldiers suffering from fever and fatigue. But Ronals Ross, a British officer, was the first to establish that mosquitoes are the vectors of malaria parasites to the human body.
First, let’s clear up a common misconception. Mosquitoes don’t cause malaria – they only transmit the disease. Malaria is caused by an organism whose life cycle is dependent on the mosquito. When a mosquito bites a person who has malaria, it ingests a small amount of that person’s blood, which contains the malaria-causing protozoan plasmodia. The microorganism then continues its lifecycle within the gut of the mosquito. When the mosquito bites an uninfected person, the developed protozoan enters that new person through the mosquito’s saliva, and a new case of malaria is born. While all malaria is serious, new world malarias tend to kill you less quickly, which allows more time for the disease to be diagnosed and treated. Nearly five decades ago, it was thought that we had conquered the war against this dreadful disease of Malaria. Many diagnostic approaches in the form of medicines like quinine, chloroquinine, etc., were tried to get rid of the malaria parasites. The medication primarily used to treat malaria is a form of quinine that’s derived from the bark of the quinine tree which is found in South America by two Frenchmen. Later Americans discovered Chloroquinine as a better option to replace quinine. Many other drugs including the molecule dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, etc., invented by scientists remain ineffective to eliminate the malaria. Even modern drugs cannot do well to fight parasites; instead the parasites become immune to the drugs because of their fast generation time. In the same way DDT, the short form of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, also remains futile to prevent the mosquitoes’ ever-increasing growth. Currently more than 515,000,000 people around the world are infected with malaria each year. Of these, between 1,000,000 and 3,000,000 people die from the disease each year. Malaria is one of the most prevalent and underfunded diseases in the world; it is only now beginning to receive the attention like other diseases that aren’t nearly as costly in terms of human lives and suffering. When you understand the crucial role that mosquitoes play in the spread of this devastating disease, controlling and eliminating mosquitoes take on a new urgency, both in terms of the economic advantages posed by its elimination and the reduction in all-around human suffering.
Dr Brian Foy of Colorado State University from his experiments asserts that the malaria parasite usually takes two weeks to grow in the mosquito body. When a female Anopheles takes a blood meal on a malaria-infected human body, it draws out parasites with it. After 10-18 days, the parasites are so grown in the mosquito body that they are available in the salivary gland of the mosquito. Such heavily infected female Anopheles mosquito further injects parasite into another human body through a bite, and this cycle goes on moving continuously. Initially, the malaria parasites grow and multiply in the human liver cells; and then evade the red blood cells to destroy them. Usual symptoms of malaria are fever and flu-like illnesses such as aches and tiredness, which may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea.
World Health Organization (WHO) / Malinda Gates Foundation’s Contribution
WHO, under the stewardship of Mrs Brundtland campaigned and implemented several clinical programmes to demolish the mosquito bred completely. The programmes consisted of actions like supply of better drugs and vaccines to the malaria victims through hospitals, opening diagnostic centres, conducting health awareness programmes among people, appeal for cleanliness of surroundings, etc. Apart from the above, the science of molecular biology and genetic engineering is put to use. Biologists even tried to sterile female mosquitoes and release them with male mosquitoes to prevent further spreading of malaria, but this could also not produce effective results in the end. In fact, the mosquito bred did not stop to increase. Ultimately, all the efforts of Mrs. Brundtland went in vain, as the malaria carrying mosquitoes went stronger even against the surefire insecticides invented.
The legendary IT wizard Bill Gates and his charitable organization The Melinda Gates Foundation have started supporting the mosquito demolition activities around the world. They also spend billions of dollars for elimination of HIV-AIDS through introduction of various types of drugs, vaccines and implementation of various health programmes. They feel that such health programmes should also contain eradication of malaria, availing safe drinking water and maintaining the ecological balance for the wellbeing and development of society. This foundation is unique in its nature as it provides financial aid to researchers to undertake various clinical researches in order to win over this perennial problem. The fight against malaria achieves the first place in the list of their agenda. Their whole-hearted efforts produce innovative ideas and actions to free the humankind from the trap of Malaria.
Ways to Eliminate Malaria and Mosquito
There are two ways to focus on the problem of malaria. The first one is to “‘rain the swamps’, or more specifically, to eliminate the habitats where mosquitoes could live and breed. The second approach, the one being currently used in Africa, is to treat infected patients and to work to develop a vaccine that will be effective against the disease. The geopolitical environment in Africa makes the elimination of breeding grounds a difficult and unwieldy task, which is why this alternate approach is being used.
Dr Foy focuses on the transmitting time of parasite from one host to another to find a way out to kill the disease malaria from its primitive stage. He concluded with an idea from the observation of another vicious disease River Blindness and it is the medicines used in prevention of that disease. It occurred by parasite worms injected by tsetse fly generally found in the African continent. A drug named Ivermectin has been very successful in destroying the parasites of tsetse. The credit for this medicine goes to the magnanimity of The Carter Foundation, a charitable organization established by Mr Jimmy Carter. Today African countries who were predominantly suffering from this disease are able to conquer it because of a sustained campaign of free distribution of this drug throughout the region. Dr Foy realized that Ivermectin is powerful to destroy parasites of both malaria as well as river blindness. People take this drug by oral application, which is easily mixed with blood and is rendered toxic for tsetse. When the tsetse fly takes a blood meal on a person, it dies due to toxins available in the human blood absorbed from Ivermectin. Dr Foy suggests the same kind of drug and its application to cure as well as to prevent malaria.
Some Interesting Information about Mosquitoes
Mosquitoes are annoying, but when you really start to study them, you can find out some surprisingly interesting things about them. The following is a roundup of some of the most uncommon bits of knowledge about a very common pest:
Male mosquitoes don’t bite people – only the females do. When a female mosquito needs blood to produce her eggs, humans are not her first choice for what is gruesomely called a ‘blood meal’ – most female mosquitoes would rather bite a cow, horse, or a small mammal such as a dog or squirrel. In addition, some mosquitoes only bite birds, reptiles or amphibians for their blood meal. Mosquitoes can fly at a speed of one mile per hour. Most mosquitoes live only about two to three weeks, although some species can live as long as six months. Males of the species generally live a shorter period of time than the females. Mosquitoes from salt marshes have been known to fly up to 40 miles from their breeding location in search of food.
Diseases carried by mosquitoes include malaria, the West Nile Virus, dog heartworm, equine encephalitis, dengue and yellow fever. There is no evidence that mosquitoes can transmit the HIV virus or AIDS. As stated above, more than one million people die each year from mosquito-borne diseases just because of lack of knowledge and their carelessness towards primary precautions. That itchy, red mosquito bite is actually a localized allergic reaction to mosquito saliva.
While researchers have some clues as to what attracts mosquitoes to humans, they still have not figured out exactly why mosquitoes seem to target some people more than others. The more carbon dioxide and lactic acid you produce, the more likely you are to attract a mosquito. Overweight people and very active or fidgety people produce more carbon dioxide and lactic acid. Mosquitoes usually prefer to bite women over men. They may not be gentlemen, but even mosquitoes prefer blondes, biting them more frequently than brunettes. Mosquitoes are very attracted to the smell of stinky feet and Limburger cheese. One study found that mosquitoes were more active during a full moon than during other parts of the lunar cycle. Dark clothing seems to attract.
The most effective mosquito repellent is still DEET, which was developed more than 50 years ago. Yellow light bulbs do not repel mosquitoes – they just don’t attract mosquitoes like brighter, hotter incandescent light does. Mosquitoes seldom bite when there is a light breeze blowing. That means that if you keep the air moving on your outside porch or deck, you might get fewer mosquito bites. Electronic bug zapper lights do not do a good job of killing mosquitoes, but they do an excellent job of killing the bugs that songbirds like to eat. Neither bats nor birds are especially effective at reducing mosquito populations, though both will eat mosquitoes from time to time if they come across them.
Common Precautionary Measure to Escape Malaria
From the general observations, I have seen that people tend to be cautious about the animals and beasts that cause apparent harm, but not about the tiny insect like mosquito, which in fact, causes much more damages to our health. Being health-conscious people, we should follow the following tips:
Maintain cleanliness of surroundings, remove dirty water-pits where mosquitoes breed and develop usually;
Use mosquito vaporizer / liquids and sprinkle DDT at the places vulnerable to mosquito generation;
Hiding places for mosquitoes are generally untouched corners of house, bathrooms and toilets which should be cleaned and sprinkled with fragrant pesticide;
Mosquitoes are attracted to darkness and black colour and so we may opt for white coloured home / house furnishing items wherever practical and possible, for example, curtains on doors & windows, tapestry on sofa cover and also maintain a lustrous light around us at the night time;
Keep the doors and windows shut as soon as the sun sets, since the mosquitoes mostly enter the house during this time;
Cover your doors and windows with mosquito nets to close their entryways;
We may also take, in consultation with doctor, primary medicines as a precautionary step, especially when the monsoon is just gone away and the mosquito generation is very high.
Malaria affects everyone irrespective of age and status quo of health. Though only a few mosquitoes are perpetrators, we should not be negligent towards the preventive measures as stated above. After all, prevention is better than cure.
Article by Jim00 Wilson
Yellow fever is defined as an acute viral haemorrhagic sickness. This kind of virus is transmitted by the bite of a female mosquito commonly found in tropical regions of Africa and South America. It is alleged that this virus strains in Africa and the affected South America in the 16th century when the slave buying began. In the 17th century, yellow fever was an epidemic affecting Africa, Europe and America. In the 19th century, was considered one of the most fatally infectious diseases in the olden times of killing millions.
Yellow fever is not transmitted by direct contact as people first thought. It was only in 1900 when the Walter Reed Commission headed by an American military physician Major Walter Reed, MD D. Confirmed assumption that disease is transmitted by mosquitoes. Although most acknowledged Major Walter Reed as the person who “beat” the sickness, the majority are not aware that a Cuban doctor named Carlos Juan Finlay was at the back of the discovery.
Dr Carlos Juan Finlay was born on December 3, 1833 in Puerto Principe in Cuba. He was a Cuban physician and scientist and the man who pioneered the exploration on yellow fever. He studied at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia in 1853 and graduated 1855th He studied in Havana and Paris to complete his medical studies.
Doctor Finlay hypothesized in 1881, that a mosquito called the disease vector is the person responsible for the spread of yellow fever. According to Finlay, the mosquitoes that have bitten a person with the sickness could transmit the sickness by biting a healthy individual. After a year Finlay was able to identify the mosquito that spreads the sickness, which belongs to the genus Aedes. He suggested to control the population of mosquitoes to control the increase of yellow fever.
It took 20 years before the Walter Reed Commission actually confirmed Finlay’s theory. While much of the acclaim went to doctor Reed to turn yellow fever, doctor Walter even credited doctor Finlay’s hypothesis showed us how to control the Yellow fever and discover a true vector.
Dr Juan Carlos Finlay’s findings has made important contributions to the interests of humanity who have given so much pride and Cuban flags.
In the last half of the nineteenth century, yellow fever plagued the American South. It stalked the region's steaming cities, killing its victims with overwhelming hepatitis and hemorrhage. Margaret Humphreys explores the ways in which this tropical disease hampered commerce, frustrated the scientific community, and eventually galvanized local and federal authorities into forming public health boards. She pays particular attention to the various theories for containing the disease and the constant tension between state and federal officials over how public funds should be spent. Her research recovers the specific concerns of the late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century South, broadening our understanding of the evolution of preventive medicine in the United States.
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- Record Label: Wild World
- Country Of Release: USA
- Year Of Release: 2010
Article by Slava
Whether traveling to experience the live volcanoes of Nicaragua, or the ancient temples of Mexico, protect yourself and your loved ones with a vaccination. Whether traveling to remote spots or the cities of Central or South America your experience should be one to remember for a lifetime–for the right reasons. Not for contracting a deadly disease! Printed below are some facts that will better help you experience the healthiest and happiest trip possible.
Yellow FeverYellow fever is a deadly, life-threatening disease caused by a virus. The two ways it is spread is through the bite of an infected monkey and the bite of an infected mosquito. Guess which one harms more people per year? The bites may cause fever and flu-like symptoms, liver and kidney failure, jaundice and in the worst of cases death. Suffice it to say, it is much better to come back to the United States with a tan than with a case of yellow fever. The best way to protect yourself (from the fever, not the tan) is to receive a vaccination before you leave America.
Problem AreasKeep in mind that yellow fever is still rampant in many areas of the world. A yellow fever vaccination is highly recommended if your travel plans include any of the following countries:
ArgentinaBoliviaBrazilColombiaEcuadorFrench GuianaGuyanaPanamaParaguayPeruSurinameTrinidad & TobagoVenezuela
Vaccinations This is the single most important measure for preventing infection. The yellow fever vaccination is easy and affordable and provides effective immunization for over 95% of the inoculated within one week of the shot. The risk of death from the disease is FAR GREATER than the risk of receiving the vaccination. There are, however, a few groups that it is recommended do not receive the vaccination due to health reasons…these include:
• Children less than nine months old (or less than six months during an epidemic).• Pregnant women – except during an outbreak when the risk of infection is very high.• People with a severe allergic reaction to eggs and egg whites. (This is because of the fact that the vaccination is incubated inside embryonic eggs.• Individuals with severe immunodeficiency due to HIV or the presence of a thymus disorder.
What are the Risks?As with any other vaccination there are risks associated with receiving it. Most side effects are mild and include only soreness & swelling and/or fever and aches. If these problems do occur they should subside within one week of inoculation.
For those people planning a trip to any of the above-mentioned countries, it is recommended that a yellow fever shot is administered at least two weeks before traveling.
In the foreground of this story is 16-year-old Mattie Cook, whose mother and grandfather own a popular coffee house on High Street. Mattie's comfortable and interesting life is shattered by the epidemic, as her mother is felled and the girl and her grandfather must flee for their lives. Later, after much hardship and terror, they return to the deserted town to find their former cook, a freed slave, working with the African Free Society, an actual group who undertook to visit and assist the sick and saved many lives. As first frost arrives and the epidemic ends, Mattie's sufferings have changed her from a willful child to a strong, capable young woman able to manage her family's business on her own. (Ages 12 and older) --Patty CampbellIt's late summer 1793, and the streets of Philadelphia are abuzz with mosquitoes and rumors of fever. Down near the docks, many have taken ill, and the fatalities are mounting. Now they include Polly, the serving girl at the Cook Coffeehouse. But fourteen-year-old Mattie Cook doesn't get a moment to mourn the passing of her childhood playmate. New customers have overrun her family's coffee shop, located far from the mosquito-infested river, and Mattie's concerns of fever are all but overshadowed by dreams of growing her family's small business into a thriving enterprise. But when the fever begins to strike closer to home, Mattie's struggle to build a new life must give way to a new fight-the fight to stay alive.
They also differ in taste and size. The smaller the onions, the more pungent they are. They make your eyes water, when you cut them because the organic sulphur is released. To prevent tears, while cutting onions, either chill it half an hour before peeling or soak them in water for half an hour.
Onions should be stored at room temperature in a well ventilated area. It should be kept away from bright light to prevent roots from growing. Onions should not be put together with potatoes as they will absorb the moisture from potatoes and rot faster.
Onions have been used in various culinary dishes for thousands of years all around the world. The production of onion is steadily increasing and is the second most important horticulture crop after tomatoes. Onions can be eaten raw, cooked, dried, fried or roasted and they are most commonly used to flavor dips, soup, salad, stir fry and other dishes. Onions should be consumed but not in excess, otherwise it can lead to stomach distress and gastrointestinal irritation that may result in nausea and diarrhea.
Onion is a powerful anti-septic and a potent source of calcium, folic acid, chromium, iron, magnesium, phosphorous and dietary fiber. Onions have been used since ancient times as a cure for many illnesses. During the World War II, the vapors of onion paste were used to accelerate the healing of wounded soldiers and reduce the pain.
This dynamite bulb has many medicinal properties
Onion contains high content of iron, which helps in the treatment of anemia.
Half of a medium sized raw onion, when eaten daily helps to lower the LDL cholesterol, correct thrombosis and prevent heart attacks.
Onions contain anti-inflammatory properties that help to reduce the symptoms of inflammatory conditions such as arthritis and gout.
Onions are very effective in the treatment of tuberculosis and infections of the urinary tract such as cystitis.
Onions either eaten raw or cooked helps to lower blood pressure naturally. It also aids in thinning the blood, dissolve blood clots and clear the blood of unhealthy fats.
Fructo-oligosaccharides present in onions stimulate the growth of good bacteria in the colon and also reduce the risk of tumors developing in the colon.
It also helps to relieve chronic constipation and flatulence.
Chromium present in onions helps to bring down the insulin level and improve glucose tolerance in diabetic patients.
Onion juice applied on scalp twice a week for two months will cause hair regrowth and this will definitely cost less than hair tonics available in the market.
The pungent taste of onion increases blood circulation and cause sweating. It also helps to fight against infection and reduce fever.
Onions contain a compound that prevents breaking down of bones. This is beneficial for those women who are at risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause.
Onion juice is one of the best preventive potions against common cold and respiratory problem. Equal quantity of onion juice and honey taken 3 to 4 times in a day, helps to liquefy mucus and prevent its further formation.
White onion contains aphrodisiac, which is very effective in the treatment of sexual disability. One tablespoon of ginger juice mixed with one table spoon of onion juice, taken thrice in a day helps to boost the libido and sex drive.
To relieve from the burning sensation of urinary tract infection, boil one onion in one glass of water, and cook till the water is reduce to half. Strain the water. Let it cool and drink this water 3 to 4 times in a day.
Chinese use onions to treat angina, coughs, breathing problems and bacterial infections.
Chewing raw onions for two to three minutes kills all the germs present in the mouth area and thus helps to prevent tooth decay and oral infection.
Onion juice when mixed with honey and applied to the skin helps to keep the skin glowing and also treats acne.
To protect from insect bite or scorpion stings, apply fresh onion juice or paste to the body. To reduce the pain caused due to honey-bee bit, apply onion juice to it.
There is nothing abnormal if your small children suffers from occasional cold fever or cough but these should not be allowed to interrupt their growth. It is best to boost children’s’ immune system by followings some smart things.
Breastfeeding- It has been proven time and again that breast milk offers the finest and total nutrition for all newborn babies. Yellow colostrums which flows in the initial days after childbirth have been known to contain antibodies which safeguard the newborn from several kinds of illnesses, like meningitis and diarrhea.
Eating more fruits and vegetables- They are a wonderful source of various nutrients including minerals and vitamins and play a vital role in keeping the child healthy. If you include them in your kid’s diet on a regular basis it will prevent from your child suffering from infections.
Hygiene should be a way you live- Wash your kids hands with soap especially playing, handling pets, meals and using the bathroom.
Adequate sleep is needed- Immunity of the body goes down if the kids don’t get enough sleep. It is a good idea to take a daily nap so that the children get enough sleep and if they don’t do that you can make them sleep a little early in the evening.
Taking part in outdoor activity and regular exercising- Make the kids join you in exercising and you can even play with them outdoors as activities increase the stamina of children. You can enjoy exciting activities like hiking, swimming and soccer.
Avoiding tobacco- Smoking as known by most of us is very unhealthy, and the smoke can be even more hazardous. If any adult member of the family smokes they should try to get rid of this unhealthy habit to safeguard the health of your kids.
They are all very simple things but they plat a very important part in the health of your children. You can discuss this with your partner and both can have a new start to healthier family and children.
For more useful information, please visit our website: THE KNOWLEDGE BASE, and look for the HEALTH & NUTRITION section.
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