All over the world, people are agog for the affliction of deadly diseases such as cancer, diabetes, heart attacks, etc. No doubt these are life killers; but this article clearly demonstrates the veracity of the devastating mosquito-borne disease, namely Malaria. Everyone in the world starting from eminent doctors to charitable organizations tried their level best to eradicate this disease, but no one so far has succeeded to uproot the disease, and millions of people yet die of Malaria. Sometimes, they cannot resist the brunt of this disease and ultimately succumb to death. A proverb says, “There are thousand ways to skin a cat.” In similar way, researches rephrase this for mosquitoes.
Malaria is a major public health problem in more than 90 countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. It has been a scourge for humankind for thousands of years and it remains one today. However, the real causes of malaria became known to the world only in the 19th century when Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran discovered malaria parasites while examining blood from soldiers. He found crescent-shaped bodies in almost the majority of soldiers suffering from fever and fatigue. But Ronals Ross, a British officer, was the first to establish that mosquitoes are the vectors of malaria parasites to the human body.
First, let’s clear up a common misconception. Mosquitoes don’t cause malaria – they only transmit the disease. Malaria is caused by an organism whose life cycle is dependent on the mosquito. When a mosquito bites a person who has malaria, it ingests a small amount of that person’s blood, which contains the malaria-causing protozoan plasmodia. The microorganism then continues its lifecycle within the gut of the mosquito. When the mosquito bites an uninfected person, the developed protozoan enters that new person through the mosquito’s saliva, and a new case of malaria is born. While all malaria is serious, new world malarias tend to kill you less quickly, which allows more time for the disease to be diagnosed and treated. Nearly five decades ago, it was thought that we had conquered the war against this dreadful disease of Malaria. Many diagnostic approaches in the form of medicines like quinine, chloroquinine, etc., were tried to get rid of the malaria parasites. The medication primarily used to treat malaria is a form of quinine that’s derived from the bark of the quinine tree which is found in South America by two Frenchmen. Later Americans discovered Chloroquinine as a better option to replace quinine. Many other drugs including the molecule dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, etc., invented by scientists remain ineffective to eliminate the malaria. Even modern drugs cannot do well to fight parasites; instead the parasites become immune to the drugs because of their fast generation time. In the same way DDT, the short form of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, also remains futile to prevent the mosquitoes’ ever-increasing growth. Currently more than 515,000,000 people around the world are infected with malaria each year. Of these, between 1,000,000 and 3,000,000 people die from the disease each year. Malaria is one of the most prevalent and underfunded diseases in the world; it is only now beginning to receive the attention like other diseases that aren’t nearly as costly in terms of human lives and suffering. When you understand the crucial role that mosquitoes play in the spread of this devastating disease, controlling and eliminating mosquitoes take on a new urgency, both in terms of the economic advantages posed by its elimination and the reduction in all-around human suffering.
Dr Brian Foy of Colorado State University from his experiments asserts that the malaria parasite usually takes two weeks to grow in the mosquito body. When a female Anopheles takes a blood meal on a malaria-infected human body, it draws out parasites with it. After 10-18 days, the parasites are so grown in the mosquito body that they are available in the salivary gland of the mosquito. Such heavily infected female Anopheles mosquito further injects parasite into another human body through a bite, and this cycle goes on moving continuously. Initially, the malaria parasites grow and multiply in the human liver cells; and then evade the red blood cells to destroy them. Usual symptoms of malaria are fever and flu-like illnesses such as aches and tiredness, which may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea.
World Health Organization (WHO) / Malinda Gates Foundation’s Contribution
WHO, under the stewardship of Mrs Brundtland campaigned and implemented several clinical programmes to demolish the mosquito bred completely. The programmes consisted of actions like supply of better drugs and vaccines to the malaria victims through hospitals, opening diagnostic centres, conducting health awareness programmes among people, appeal for cleanliness of surroundings, etc. Apart from the above, the science of molecular biology and genetic engineering is put to use. Biologists even tried to sterile female mosquitoes and release them with male mosquitoes to prevent further spreading of malaria, but this could also not produce effective results in the end. In fact, the mosquito bred did not stop to increase. Ultimately, all the efforts of Mrs. Brundtland went in vain, as the malaria carrying mosquitoes went stronger even against the surefire insecticides invented.
The legendary IT wizard Bill Gates and his charitable organization The Melinda Gates Foundation have started supporting the mosquito demolition activities around the world. They also spend billions of dollars for elimination of HIV-AIDS through introduction of various types of drugs, vaccines and implementation of various health programmes. They feel that such health programmes should also contain eradication of malaria, availing safe drinking water and maintaining the ecological balance for the wellbeing and development of society. This foundation is unique in its nature as it provides financial aid to researchers to undertake various clinical researches in order to win over this perennial problem. The fight against malaria achieves the first place in the list of their agenda. Their whole-hearted efforts produce innovative ideas and actions to free the humankind from the trap of Malaria.
Ways to Eliminate Malaria and Mosquito
There are two ways to focus on the problem of malaria. The first one is to “‘rain the swamps’, or more specifically, to eliminate the habitats where mosquitoes could live and breed. The second approach, the one being currently used in Africa, is to treat infected patients and to work to develop a vaccine that will be effective against the disease. The geopolitical environment in Africa makes the elimination of breeding grounds a difficult and unwieldy task, which is why this alternate approach is being used.
Dr Foy focuses on the transmitting time of parasite from one host to another to find a way out to kill the disease malaria from its primitive stage. He concluded with an idea from the observation of another vicious disease River Blindness and it is the medicines used in prevention of that disease. It occurred by parasite worms injected by tsetse fly generally found in the African continent. A drug named Ivermectin has been very successful in destroying the parasites of tsetse. The credit for this medicine goes to the magnanimity of The Carter Foundation, a charitable organization established by Mr Jimmy Carter. Today African countries who were predominantly suffering from this disease are able to conquer it because of a sustained campaign of free distribution of this drug throughout the region. Dr Foy realized that Ivermectin is powerful to destroy parasites of both malaria as well as river blindness. People take this drug by oral application, which is easily mixed with blood and is rendered toxic for tsetse. When the tsetse fly takes a blood meal on a person, it dies due to toxins available in the human blood absorbed from Ivermectin. Dr Foy suggests the same kind of drug and its application to cure as well as to prevent malaria.
Some Interesting Information about Mosquitoes
Mosquitoes are annoying, but when you really start to study them, you can find out some surprisingly interesting things about them. The following is a roundup of some of the most uncommon bits of knowledge about a very common pest:
Male mosquitoes don’t bite people – only the females do. When a female mosquito needs blood to produce her eggs, humans are not her first choice for what is gruesomely called a ‘blood meal’ – most female mosquitoes would rather bite a cow, horse, or a small mammal such as a dog or squirrel. In addition, some mosquitoes only bite birds, reptiles or amphibians for their blood meal. Mosquitoes can fly at a speed of one mile per hour. Most mosquitoes live only about two to three weeks, although some species can live as long as six months. Males of the species generally live a shorter period of time than the females. Mosquitoes from salt marshes have been known to fly up to 40 miles from their breeding location in search of food.
Diseases carried by mosquitoes include malaria, the West Nile Virus, dog heartworm, equine encephalitis, dengue and yellow fever. There is no evidence that mosquitoes can transmit the HIV virus or AIDS. As stated above, more than one million people die each year from mosquito-borne diseases just because of lack of knowledge and their carelessness towards primary precautions. That itchy, red mosquito bite is actually a localized allergic reaction to mosquito saliva.
While researchers have some clues as to what attracts mosquitoes to humans, they still have not figured out exactly why mosquitoes seem to target some people more than others. The more carbon dioxide and lactic acid you produce, the more likely you are to attract a mosquito. Overweight people and very active or fidgety people produce more carbon dioxide and lactic acid. Mosquitoes usually prefer to bite women over men. They may not be gentlemen, but even mosquitoes prefer blondes, biting them more frequently than brunettes. Mosquitoes are very attracted to the smell of stinky feet and Limburger cheese. One study found that mosquitoes were more active during a full moon than during other parts of the lunar cycle. Dark clothing seems to attract.
The most effective mosquito repellent is still DEET, which was developed more than 50 years ago. Yellow light bulbs do not repel mosquitoes – they just don’t attract mosquitoes like brighter, hotter incandescent light does. Mosquitoes seldom bite when there is a light breeze blowing. That means that if you keep the air moving on your outside porch or deck, you might get fewer mosquito bites. Electronic bug zapper lights do not do a good job of killing mosquitoes, but they do an excellent job of killing the bugs that songbirds like to eat. Neither bats nor birds are especially effective at reducing mosquito populations, though both will eat mosquitoes from time to time if they come across them.
Common Precautionary Measure to Escape Malaria
From the general observations, I have seen that people tend to be cautious about the animals and beasts that cause apparent harm, but not about the tiny insect like mosquito, which in fact, causes much more damages to our health. Being health-conscious people, we should follow the following tips:
Maintain cleanliness of surroundings, remove dirty water-pits where mosquitoes breed and develop usually;
Use mosquito vaporizer / liquids and sprinkle DDT at the places vulnerable to mosquito generation;
Hiding places for mosquitoes are generally untouched corners of house, bathrooms and toilets which should be cleaned and sprinkled with fragrant pesticide;
Mosquitoes are attracted to darkness and black colour and so we may opt for white coloured home / house furnishing items wherever practical and possible, for example, curtains on doors & windows, tapestry on sofa cover and also maintain a lustrous light around us at the night time;
Keep the doors and windows shut as soon as the sun sets, since the mosquitoes mostly enter the house during this time;
Cover your doors and windows with mosquito nets to close their entryways;
We may also take, in consultation with doctor, primary medicines as a precautionary step, especially when the monsoon is just gone away and the mosquito generation is very high.
Malaria affects everyone irrespective of age and status quo of health. Though only a few mosquitoes are perpetrators, we should not be negligent towards the preventive measures as stated above. After all, prevention is better than cure.
Cancer Again It’s Not Harmful
Cancer is no longer lethal.The cancer patients in Indonesia can
have a longer life expectancy with the discovery of plant
“keladi tikus” (Typhonium flagelliforme / Rodent Tuber) as a plant
drugs that can stop and treat various diseases and cancer
other serious diseases.
Kind of taro plants with maximum height of 25 to 30 cm is only
grow on bushes that are not exposed to direct sunlight.”Plants
This is usually found on the island of Java, “said Drs.Patoppoi Pasau,
The first person who found the plant in Indonesia ..
Medicinal plants have been studied since 1995 by Prof. Dr. Chris
KHTeo, Dip Agric (M), BSc Agric (Hons) (M), MS, PhD from Universiti
Sains Malaysia and also the founder of Cancer Care Penang, Malaysia.Institutions
cancer treatment which was founded in 1995 that has helped thousands
patients from Malaysia, America, Britain, Australia, New Zealand,
Singapore, and various countries in the world.
In Indonesia, the plant was first discovered by Patoppoi in
Pekalongan, Central Java.At that time, the wife Patoppoi cancer
breast stage III and had to have surgery January 14, 1998.After
cancer is removed through surgery, the wife must Patoppoi
undergoing chemotherapy (injection of chemicals to kill the cell, Red) to
stop the spread of cancer cells.
“Prior to chemotherapy, doctors told us
prepare a wig (wigs) because the chemotherapy would lead to
hair loss, in addition to skin damage and loss of appetite, “
During accompany her to chemotherapy, continue Patoppoi
trying to find an alternative treatment until he finally get
information regarding the use of Qi Lin tea in Malaysia for treating
cancer.”At that time I also fly to Malaysia for buy
Patoppoi who also said a biologist.When it was in a
medicine in Malaysia, he accidentally saw and read a book
about cancer treatment, entitled Cancer, Yet They Live essay
Dr Chris K.H.Teo issue of 1996.
“After I read at a glance, I just bought the book.
Once I found the book, so I did not even buy tea Lin Qi,
but immediately returned to Indonesia, “recalled Patoppoi with a smile.
In that book Patoppoi read Typhonium flagelliforme properties.
Based on his knowledge in the fields of biology, retired officials
Ministry of Agriculture immediately investigate and search for plants
them.After contacting several colleagues at various places,
relatives in Pekalongan, Central Java, to call back.Apparently,
they found the plant there.After getting the plant
and learn more, Patoppoi contact Dr.Teo in
Malaysia to ask for the truth of the plants he found it.
After a few days, Dr Teo contact Patoppoi and explained that
these plants are really Rodent Tuber.”Dr Teo said that
no doubt for use as a medicine, “
Finally, with determination and prayer for healing, Patoppoi start
processing plant in accordance with the steps in the book
to be drunk as medicine.Then Patoppoi contact her son,
Boni Patoppoi in Buduran, Sidoarjo to go find a plant
“After seeing the characteristics of these plants, I started looking at
river front of the house and immediately I get these plants
grows wild in
edge of the river, “said Boni who accompanied his father at that time.
As long as these plants consume juice, wife Patoppoi experience
decrease the side effects of chemotherapy she lived.Her hair stopped
falling out, skin is not damaged and the nausea disappeared.”Even appetite
My mother was back to normal, “said Boni.
After three months of taking the drug, the wife Patoppoi undergo
cancer examination.”The examination result is negative, and it really
surprised us and the doctors in Jakarta, “said Patoppoi. The
physicians were then asked to Patoppoi, what is given in
wife.”In fact, they doubt if they had been wrong to give
dose chemotherapy to us, “continued Patoppoi.
Having explained the story Rodent Tuber plant, physicians
also supports the treatment and suggested that
develop it.Furthermore according to the state of his wife who did not
experiencing side effects of chemotherapy is very hard.And
examination should be three months
postponed to six months. “But for one thing, the
doctors do not want to support openly the use of
alternative medicine, “Boni said, laughing.
After a while not related, based on improvements
state of his wife, in April 1998, Patoppoi then contact
by fax untukmenginformasik of that plant is widely available
in Java and
invite Dr.Teo to spread the use of this plant in Indonesia.
Then Dr. ..Teo directly reply to fax us, but they do not know
what they should do, because of long distances, “continued Patoppoi.
Although Patoppoi propose that their book is translated in
Indonesiadan language widely disseminated in Indonesia, Dr.Teo recommend
for both parties to work together and concentrate on business
real help cancer patients in Indonesia.
Then, in late January 2000 when Java runs out of the Post review
Wir Wing yanto death, one reporter reliable Java
Postage, Patoppoi was surprised.Detailed data about symptoms,
pain, treatment is reviewed in the Java Post, was the same as
one colon cancer treatment experiences described
in the book.And experimental treatment
successfully cure the patient.
“Then I immediately wrote the column in Java Post Readers Writing,”
And the responses received is really beyond expectations.Within a day,
be about 30 phone calls.”Until now, there are already around
who come here, “said Boni which is located at Jl. KH. Khamdani,
The first patient is a patient who managed to Cervical Cancer
early stages.After review, the doctor said to have an operation.
But because not yet have a cost and while waiting for his behavior
for operating costs, they come after reading the Java Pos.
Once given the plant and how to drink it, not long after the patient
came back and reported that he did not need an operation,
because the results say negative.
Based on public interest around a very tall, Patoppoi
trying to meet Dr.Teo directly.The assistance director
General of Drug and Food Control Ministry of Health, Sampurno,
Patoppoi to see Dr.Teo in Penang, Malaysia.In the central office
Cancer Care Penang, Malaysia, Patoppoi get further information
current research on plants that were found to have the name of Indonesia ..
Apparently when Patoppoi get the book “Cancer, Yet They Live” edition
revision 1999, fax he sent on to include in the book,
his wife in an attempt to fight against cancer.From the conversation
them, Dr.Teo recommends establishing Patoppoi
Cancer Care representatives in Jakarta and Surabaya.So officially,
Patoppoi and his son appointed as representatives of social institutions Cancer
Care Indonesia, which is also mentioned in the monthly bulletin of Cancer Care,
Jl.Kayu Putih 4 No..5, Jakarta, tel.62-21-4894745,
and in Buduran, Sidoarjo.
Cancer Care Malaysiatelah develop forms
treatment is more sophisticated.They have been producing
” keladi tikus”r extract
in pill form and powder tea combined with various
pla other with a certain dose.”The dose required
depending on the illness, “said Boni.
To get the drug, the patient must fill out a form
asking the patient and his condition and symptoms will be sent by fax
to Dr.Teo.”The form can be filled here, and we will fax out.
Then Dr.Teo will personally send a recipe as well
medicine, with prices direct from Malaysia, about 40-60 Ringgit
Malaysia, “said Boni.
“So the patient pays only the cost of fax and medicine, we do not attract
even for the less able, can provide an extension Dr.Teo
time of payment.”He added.
Actually these treatments are also supported and being tested by one
a senior doctor in Surat, in patients with cancer
kidney.Adadua patients being treated physicians who had served
as director of one of the largest hospitals in Surabayaini.Patients
cervical cancer had not given the treatment with rat taro,
handled by fellow physicians who already have a reputation.After
undergoing chemotherapy and radiology, the patient is experiencing hair loss
Hair, damaged and itchy skin, and always vomiting.
But in the second patient who suffered from kidney cancer, this doctor
handle it themselves and also give pills to help taro rat
healing process of chemotherapy.
In this second patient, not encountered a variety of effects experienced by
The first patient, even the patient looks normal.But
This doctor refused to be exposed because
according to him, this treatment has not been formally studied in Indonesia ..
He said that if his colleagues learned that he was taking medication
Alternatively, they will give a title as “tar-kun” or
“This is an open gap between conventional and modern medicine,”
said the doctor.
Many interesting things happened during the receiving and giving Boni
assistance to various patients.There’s even a heavy addict putaw and
shabu-shabu in Surabaya, which eventually got addicted to it
lung cancer.After receiving the verdict of lung cancer stage III,
these patients are taking the pill
and tea from the Cancer Care.The result is quite surprising, as it turns out
drug drugs can remove toxins from the blood circulation
overcome the dependence on these drugs.
“But, if the addict is able to neutralize the poison with taro rats,
he should not do drugs anymore, because it surely will arise
resistance.So do not
like kebo, after wallowing bath again, “Boni said, laughing.
Also there is the experience of patients who roared in pain due to attacks
the gnawing cancer, because the painkillers are not
work anymore.After the rats were given drinking juice taro, a few moments
then the patient is calm and no longer feel pain.
According to data from Cancer Care Malaysia, the various diseases that have been
cured are a variety of cancers and serious illnesses like cancer
breast, lung, colon-rectum,
liver, prostate, kidney, cervix, throat, bone, brain, spleen,
leukemia, bladder, pancreas,
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A Potential Complication in Glomerulonephritis or Renal Amyloidosis
Canine nephrotic syndrome is a result of damage to the kidneys of the dog. Kidney disease and/or kidney failure is the primary cause of nephrotic syndrome. Nephrotic syndrome is relatively rare in dogs but can be life-threatening and even fatal when it occurs.
Diagnosis of Canine Nephrotic Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome in dogs is diagnosed by the presence of:
low albumin levels in the blood
high levels of urea nitrogen in the blood
abnormally high levels of protein in the urine
high blood cholesterol levels
Urine protein:creatinine ratios help quantify protein levels found in the urine in relationship to the water consumption of the animal. Urine cultures test for urinary tract infections which may also affect the protein levels found in urine. These tests may be necessary to determine whether protein found in the urine is the result of kidney disease or other urinary tract disease. Routine blood screens will quantify albumin blood levels, blood urea nitrogen levels and cholesterol levels in the blood. Edema (swelling of tissues) and other abnormal fluid accumulation may occur in canine nephrotic syndrome due to osmotic abnormalities resulting from protein loss.
Kidney Disease Causes Nephrotic Syndrome in Dogs
Canine nephrotic syndrome results from damage to the kidneys and is usually the result of:
glomerulonephritis – inflammation in the kidney resulting in excessive protein loss through the kidney.
renal amyloidosis – deposition of amyloid (a glycoprotein) within the architecture of the kidney which leads to renal disease and protein loss through the kidneys.
Both glomerulonephritis and renal amyloidosis can have many causes. Approximately 15% of dogs with glomerulonephritis develop nephrotic syndrome. However, nephrotic syndrome may be more commonly encountered in dogs suffering from renal amyloidosis, although renal amyloidosis is a relatively rare condition.
Symptoms of Nephrotic Syndrome Caused by Protein Loss Resulting from Kidney Disease or Failure
Symptoms of nephrotic syndrome are the direct result of the protein loss which occurs in kidney disease or kidney failure. Hypercholesterolemia (elevated blood cholesterol levels) can also play a role in the development of symptoms.
Symptoms commonly seen with canine nephrotic syndrome include:
swelling, especially in the legs
abnormal accumulation of fluid in body cavities
hypertension (high blood pressure)
thromboembolic disease (abnormal blood clots)
disseminated intravascular coagulation, also known as DIC (a disorder causing abnormal bleeding deficits)
Treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome in Dogs
Nephrotic syndrome is a serious complication to kidney disease and can be difficult to treat. Treatment involves treating the underlying cause of the protein loss, which can be difficult in some cases to determine.
Diuretics such as mannitol or dextrose solutions, or even furosemide (Lasix®) may be necessary in treating nephrotic syndrome in order to decrease the metabolic wastes and improve the kidney function.
Other treatments frequently necessary in treating kidney disease and/or kidney failure may also be necessary in treating nephrotic syndrome and may include:
antibiotics, if infection is present
fluid therapy, to correct dehydration and replace potassium and proteins as necessary
dietary restrictions, such as salt, phosphorus and sometimes protein restriction
aspirin (low dose aspirin therapy to control thromboembolism, as necessary)
phosphate binders, such as aluminum hydroxide and many others, if phosphate levels are elevated
antiemetic medications to control vomiting, if necessary
medications to reduce gastric acidity, modify gastrointestinal motility and protect against gastrointestinal ulceration, as necessary
medications to control hypertension, as necessary
angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, such as enalapril and benazepril
vitamin B complex and vitamin C supplementation
calcitriol to decrease levels of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), in some cases
usage of immunosuppressive medications, such as glucocorticoids, azathioprine and cyclosporine is controversial but used in some situations
Renal Disease and/or Kidney Failure and Nephrotic Syndrome in Dogs
Nephrotic syndrome is a serious complication to kidney disease in dogs, usually resulting from glomerulonephritis or renal amyloidosis. The resultant kidney disease and/or kidney failure results in renal damage which allows excessive protein loss through the urine. Though rare, the syndrome is life-threatening and potentially fatal.
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